There is more to perplex us; for we see the original indeterminate Energy throwing out general determinates of itself,— we might equally in their relation to the variety of their products call them generic indeterminates,—with their appropriate states of substance and determined forms of that substance: the latter are numerous, sometimes innumerable variations on the substance-energy which is their base: but none of these variations seems to be predetermined by anything in the nature of the general indeterminate.
The original indeterminate Energy throws out general determinates (the resultant creations) of itself. In this process a variety of products are created. In their relation to the variety of products created the base may be called generic indeterminates. These generic indeterminates have appropriate states of substance. They produce determined forms of that substance, eg.. plant species, animal species, material substance etc.
These determined forms are numerous. They are often innumerable variations on the substance-energy which is their base. But none of these variations are pre-determined in the nature of the general indeterminates – their base substance. If we look into the nature of the base substance we cannot find anything that corresponds to the results they produce.
An electric Energy produces positive, negative, neutral forms of itself, forms that are at once waves and particles; a gaseous state of energy-substance produces a considerable number of different gases; a solid state of energy substance from which results the earth principle develops into different forms of earth and rock of many kinds and numerous minerals and metals; a life principle produces its vegetable kingdom teeming with a countless foison of quite different plants, trees, flowers; a principle of animal life produces an enormous variety of genus, species, individual variations: so it proceeds into human life and mind and its mind-types towards the still unwritten end or perhaps the yet occult sequel of that unfinished evolutionary chapter.
Now, let us see some of the appropriate states of substance and their determined forms.
An electric Energy produces positive, negative, neutral forms of itself. These forms are at once waves and particles. A gaseous state of energy-substance produces a considerable number of different gases. A solid state of energy substance produces the result of the earth principle. It further develops into different forms of earth, rock of many kinds and numerous minerals and metals. A life principle produces its vegetable kingdom which produces plentiful supply of different plants, trees, flowers. A principle of animal life produces an enormous variety of genus (closely related groups in animal kingdom), species, and individual variations. It further proceeds into human life and mind and its mind-types towards the still unwritten or occult mind-types in its evolution.
Throughout there is the constant rule of a general sameness in the original determinate and, subject to this substantial sameness of basic substance and nature, a profuse variation in the generic and individual determinates; an identical law obtains of sameness or similarity in the genus or species with numerous variations often meticulously minute in the individual. But we do not find anything in any general or generic determinate necessitating the variant determinations that result from it.
We find throughout the constant rule of a general sameness in the original determinate. Subject to this substantial sameness of basic substance and nature we find a profuse variation in the generic and individual determinants. There is an identical law governing the sameness or similarity in the genus or species. Yet we find numerous variations, often meticulously minute in the individual.
For example we find the biological sameness or similarity in the human species – the original determinate. But each individual varies minutely from the other. If we take a plant species we find the sameness or similarity among them. Yet, each individual plant, even each individual leaf varies from the other.
But we do not find anything in any general or generic determinate (in their basic substance-energy) that necessitates such variations at the individual level.
A necessity of immutable sameness at the base, of free and unaccountable variations on the surface seems to be the law; but who or what necessitates or determines? What is the rationale of the determination, what is its original truth or its significance? What compels or impels this exuberant play of varying possibilities which seem to have no aim or meaning unless it be the beauty or delight of creation? A Mind, a seeking and curious inventive Thought, a hidden determining Will might be there, but there is no trace of it in the first and fundamental appearance of material Nature.
We find the law that ensures the necessity of immutable sameness at the base. At the same time it ensures free and unaccountable variations on the surface. The question that arises is who or what necessitates or determines.
If somebody determines, what is the rationale behind each determination? What is the original truth that determines or is its significance?
We find in this world exuberant (full of energy) play of varying possibilities. They seem to have no aim or meaning unless it is the beauty or delight of creation.
It is quite possible that there is a Mind, a seeking and curious inventive Thought, a hidden determining Will present behind all these phenomena. But we find no trace of it in the first and fundamental appearance of material Nature.
A first possible explanation points to a self-organising dynamic Chance that is at work,—a paradox necessitated by the appearance of inevitable order on one side, of unaccountable freak and fantasy on the other side of the cosmic phenomenon we call Nature. An inconscient and inconsequent Force, we may say, that acts at random and creates this or that by a general chance without any determining principle,—determinations coming in only as the result of a persistent repetition of the same rhythm of action and succeeding because only this repetitive rhythm could succeed in keeping things in being,— this is the energy of Nature.
One explanation we can possibly give is that there is a self-organising dynamic Chance which is responsible for all the phenomena in the universe. All that appears or happens in the universe is the work of chance. But this idea seems to be a paradox to us. Because on one side we see an inevitable order, on the other side we see Nature as a cosmic phenomenon full of unaccountable freak and fantasy.
For example we come across natural disasters like earth quake, floods, cyclones that seem to occur randomly causing destruction of living and non-living things. On the other hand we see ordered creation of various species (plants and animals), ordered occurrence of seasonal changes, ordered movements of planets etc.
We are faced with a question, how can there be an order in a field of random chance?
How do we perceive the energy of Nature? We perceive Nature as an inconscient and inconsequent Force. It acts at random and creates things by a general chance without any determining principle. Persistence repetition of the same rhythm of action only produces the determinations. Only this repetitive rhythm could succeed in keeping things in being.
For example, persistent flow of water from the hills to the sea decides the course of the river. Persistent repetition of climatic conditions decides the seasons. This holds good for all the operations of Nature.
But this implies that somewhere in the origin of things there is a boundless Possibility or a womb of innumerable possibilities that are manifested out of it by the original Energy,—an incalculable Inconscient which we find some embarrassment in calling either an Existence or a Non-Existence; for without some such origin and basis the appearance and the action of the Energy is unintelligible.
Still, when we say energy of Nature, there has to be an origin for it. A boundless Possibility or a womb of innumerable possibilities are there in that origin. They are manifested out of it by the original Energy. This explains how we find order in various created things in the universe.
This source appears to us as an incalculable Inconscient. It is either an Existence or a Non-Existence though the modern mind finds it embarrassing to call it by these terms. Because without some such origin and basis the appearance and the action of the Energy is unintelligible. We can understand the working of the Energy only by taking into account its origin or base.
Yet an opposite aspect of the nature of the cosmic phenomenon as we see it appears to forbid the theory of a random action generating a persistent order. There is too much of an iron insistence on order, on a law basing the possibilities. One would be justified rather in supposing that there is an inherent imperative Truth of things unseen by us, but a Truth capable of manifold manifestation, throwing out a multitude of possibilities and variants of itself which the creative Energy by its action turns into so many realised actualities.
Is everything that happens in the universe a random action generating a persisting order? It does not seem to be so. There is an opposite aspect of the nature of the cosmic phenomenon that refutes such a theory.
We find in this universe too much of an iron insistence on order, on a law basing the possibilities. It seems, rather, everything that happens in the universe is mechanical.
Therefore we would be justified in concluding that there is an inherent imperative Truth of things unseen by us. It is a Truth capable of manifold manifestation. It is capable of throwing out a multitude of possibilities and variants of itself. They are turned into so many realised actualities by the action of the creative Energy.
This brings us to a second explanation—a mechanical necessity in things, its workings recognisable by us as so many mechanical laws of Nature;—the necessity, we might say, of some such secret inherent Truth of things as we have supposed, governing automatically the processes we observe in action in the universe. But a theory of mechanical Necessity by itself does not elucidate the free play of the endless unaccountable variations which are visible in the evolution: there must be behind the Necessity or in it a law of unity associated with a coexistent but dependent law of multiplicity, both insisting on manifestation; but the unity of what, the multiplicity of what? Mechanical Necessity can give no answer.
Can we conclude that whatever happens in this universe is on account of a mere mechanical necessity? We recognise the workings of mechanical necessity by so many mechanical laws of Nature. This necessity is on account of some such secret inherent Truth of things we have supposed earlier. It automatically governs the processes we observe in action in the universe.
But if we accept the theory of mechanical necessity, how are we to account for the free play of the endless variations which are visible in the evolution? Then, there must be behind the Necessity or in it a law of unity.
This law of unity is associated with a coexistent but dependent law of multiplicity. Both insist on manifestation. There is an underlying law of unity behind all created things. This unity also permits multiplicity of created things. The theory of Mechanical Necessity can give no answer as to the unity of what, the multiplicity of what.
For example if we take everything that appears in the universe out of a mechanical necessity the same things should repeat themselves. But how are we to account for infinite variations in the created species and even among the same species.